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Ultrasonic Homogenizer - Application Notes

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Alphabetical Listing ( I - S )


Intracellular membrane - disruption and particle size reduction obtained in 30-60 seconds.

Isoenzymes - are selectively activated with respect to time and intensity of treatment.






Kidney - 1 gm disrupts in 3 minutes.

Kidney stones - easliy broken in seconds in vitro.

Klebsiella - excellent disruption.



Lactobacillus - 0.5 gm in 15 ml, complete disruption in 11 minutes. Excellent release of acetokinase.

L. arabinosis - complete disruption to free virus in 2 minutes without injury.

Leuconostoc mesenteriodes - ultrasonic treatment in 15 minutes using high power fir disruption.Leukocyte lysozme activity in myelocytic leukemia - the cell suspension was sonicated and samples assayed for lysozyme activity. The lysozyme concentration of the leukocytes ug./10 cells were determined.

Linoleic acid - made suspension in water in 30 seconds.

Liped vesicles - excellent results preparing small, unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with Cup Horn attachment, as well as by direct probe sonication.

Liver tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in less than 1 minute.

Lung tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in 2 minutes.

Lymphacytis - complete disruption in 15 seconds.

Lymphocyte nuclei - complete disruption in 6 minutes.

Lymphography - direct injection lymphography with a modified radiopaque emulsion was obtained by sonication in a functional procedure producing lymphatic structure detail.

Lysosomes - released enzymes quickly.



Malaria protozoa - excellent disruption quickly.

Maple bark spores - complete disruption in 14 minutes.

Measles - disruption of virus (measles) antigen clumps present in infected cells on low power. Sonication increased antigen titer 4-8 fold.

Methanobacillus omelianskii - complete disruption for assaying methane. 1 gm cells wet wt/ml of 0.5M, in 2 minutes.

Microbacterium lacticum - ultrasonic treatment used for malate dehydrogenase extraction.

Micrococci - complete disruption in 15 minutes, 13 ml solution.

Micrococcus lactiliticus - 75 ml of a 20% suspension was disrupted in 15 minutes. A good yield of the enzyme Xanthine dehydrogenase was extracted.

Mineral rock - excellent for cleaning surfaces between polishing stages.

Mitochondria - separates from cells without injury. Mitochondria themselves can be broken with longer sonication. Inner membrane sub units also isolated.

Muscle tissue - 1 gm homogenized in 4 minutes.; heart muscle 6 minutes.

Mycobacteria - 20 ml growing media completely disrupts in 14 minutes. Breaks clumps quickly. An immunological compound prepared.

Mycoplasma antibody - a suspension of Campo-W cells treated for 5 minutes gave 12 lines with the sera in a gel diffusion test. The extract was estimated to contain 12.75 mg protein per ml by Blaret reaction.

Myeloma tumor cells - Complete disruption in 10 minutes. 30% disruption in 2 minutes.

Myleran - made colloidal suspension and dissolved in approximately 1 minute.



Naegleri gruberi - this free-living soil amoeba was sonicated to release subcellular infectious material.

N. crassa - nuclease was isolated and purified from conidial extracts after 5 minute treatment.

Neurospora - 40 ml, 4 minute produces more protein than freeze thawing for study of enzymatic synthesis of cystathionine.

Nocardia Ostenodes - breaks clumps and disrupts in less than 10 minutes.

Nucleoprotein - extracted from tissue. May be degraded selectively.



Oil and water emulsions - permanent, stable emulsions in a few seconds. Particle size reduced to less than 1/2 micron (each case slightly different). Oil in water-water in oil phases can be obtained in same vessel. Continuous flow process is available.

Oyster shell - small clean hole can be drilled with microtip in 3 minutes. No cracking is produced.



Paracolon - excellent disruption.

Parasites - easily separated from red cells in a few seconds.

Pasteurella pestis - complete disruption in 30 minutes of 20 ml using high power.

Penicillium - complete disruption in 3 minutes.

Pesticides - ultrasonic treatment resulted in a 16 fold improvement in the potency of the antigen used with Microcrystalline cellulose as a thin-layer absorbent for chromatographic separation.

Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase - the most potent inhibitors for this enzyme were obtained by making five dispersions with the Sonic Dismembrator.

Phospholipid micelles - produced stable preparations for an indefinite period.

Plant cells - 30% packed plant cells (W/V) and distilled water (depending on type) can be completely disrupted in 15 minutes.

Platelets - complete disruption according to size from 20 seconds to 4 minutes.

Pneumococci - preserved in formalin for several years; complete disruption in 6 minutes.

Polio virus - excellent disruption of this most difficult virus.

Powders - are broken down to a small, relatively uniformparticle size.

PPLO - complete disruption in 2 minutes.

Propionobacteria - releases sulfhydro groups intact 70 ml of 20% suspension processed in 10 minutes.

Propionibacterium Shermanii - 2 minutes for extraction of citrate synthose.

Proteus - excellent disruption.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - rapid, complete disruption.

Pseudomonas fluorescens - 2 gm wet wt in 10 ml, complete disruption in 1 minute.

Pulmonary cytodiagnosis - the mucus in sputum can be evenly dispersed affording a quick representative sample of cells of cytologic examination. Cells are liberated from the mucus of sputum that has been immersed in 50% alcohol or fixative.






Ragweed pollen - 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 11 minutes.

Rat bone - 1/2 gm disrupts in 4 minutes.

Rat liver - complete disruption in 3 minutes.

Rat liver mitochondria - ultrasonic treatment has been used extensively for the varied research performed on this material. Disruption time is a matter of seconds.

Rat skin - complete disruption 1 gm in 4 minutes.

Red cell - sonicating breaks particle size to 100 Angstroms. Complete disruption in 1 minute. 25 gms/100ml, saline or plasma, sample treated 15 seconds, 35% disruption. Adenosine triphosphate was shown to be membrane bound by this method.

Reovirus - dissociates cell-bound and aggregated virus. Maximum titer with 4 ml of virus was achieved in 2 minutes.

Retinal outer segments - sonicating breaks particles down to almost molecular size.

Rhodopseudomonis palustris - complete disruption in 4 minutes.

Rhodospirillum rubrum - excellent disruption in a few seconds.

Rimosus - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 50% disruption in 2 minutes.

RNA - rapid and throrough re-suspension of 9 PCA pellets during extractions.>

Rocks - excellent for disaggregation of sedimentary rock. Excellent for cleaning material rock surfaces between polishing stages.



Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) - 9 gm pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer; complete disruption in 8 minutes. Protein release 52 mg/ml from an aged sample.

Saliva glands - complete disruption.

Salmonella - various culture media or phosphate buffered saline disintegrated between 40 and 50% in 10-20 minutes. Sonicating was one step in an improved assay for enzyme thiogalactosize transacetylase.

Salmonella typhimurium and enteritidis - bacteria were suspended in 1/300 volume of original culture, sonicated for 4 minutes and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 20,000 g. Extracts were found to catalyze the synthesis of cytidine diphosphate 3, 6-dideozyhexoses.

Schistosoma mansoni - complete disruption.

Sedimentary rock - completely disperses flocs with the release of all bound silt and clay particles.

Sediments - Sonicating readily disperses fine material allowing a quick, neat separation of the sand from silt and clay fractions.

Serial number restoration - used in crime laboratories to restore obliterated serial numbers.

Serratia marcescens - complete breakdown in 1 minute for a 12 ml concentrated solution.

Serum - quickly homogenized.

Serum cholinesterase - activated by ultrasonic treatment. Different cholinesterase isoenzymes may be activated selectively and inactivated selectively.

S. faecalis - excellent disruption in 1 minute.

S. fragilis - 5 minute yielded excellent release of galactokinase; much more than any other methos. Sub cellular particles may be extracted or disrupted.

Shale - excellent disaggregation of all fine grained sedimentary rocks.

Shellfish - by drilling a clean hole with the microtip, various fluids or samples may be withdrawn or injected from living shellfish without destroying the animal.

Shigella - quick disruption.

Skin - 1 gm disrupts in about 4 minutes. Epidermal homogenates can be extracted that are able to respire and utilize substrate.

Soil - separates solid particles without the use of oxidents, acids orpeptizing agents and yields stable suspension.

Sperm (human) - tails are broken instantly, heads are broken in 20 minutes.

Sputum - Cancer cells are more easliy detected after ultrasonic treatment due to even dispersion of cells and sputum, and complete liberation of the cells from sputum.

Staphylococcus - concentrated solution, 15 ml, 98% disruption in 10 minutes. With 1 gm cells wet wt, to 2 gm water, 54.5 mg/ml of protein was released.

Starch - obtained by extracting from green plant leaf homogenate.

Streptococcus, Group A - 20% suspension in 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 15 minutes.

Streptomyces - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes.

Sub cellular particles - may be separated or broken depending upon power selection aand length of time.

Sulfanilamide - excellent disperion in less than 1 minute. Continues sonication will prroduce complete disruption.

Sulfapyridine - excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continued sonication will produce complete disruption.

Synovial fluid - sonicating is an excellent means of reducing fluid viscosity. The ultrasonic method is both simpler and faster than using hyaluronidase.


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BioLogics manufactures the OMNICON Antibiotic Potency Testing systems and Ultrasonic Homogenizers.

OMNICON Antibiotic Potency
The OMNI-Noculator is an automated Peni Cylinder Dispensing and Peni Cylinder liquid filling system.

Ultrasonic Homogenizers
The Model 300RS is for chromatin shearing (ChIP assay), and DNA/RNA shearing for sequencing analysis.

Ultrasonic Homogenizers are also referred to as Sonicators, Cell Disruptors, Sonifiers®, and Sonic Dismembrators

Sonifier is a registered trademark of Branson Ultrasonics Corporation 

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Manassas, Virginia 20109
United States of America

Tel: (703) 367-9020
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